Ore 10:30, classe 5° A dell’Oliveti. Studenti che chiacchierano in attesa di un incontro con una ragazza di cui sanno solo che appartiene a “Il pane e le rose”, Associazione di volontariato che si batte contro la criminalità organizzata.
Questa l’atmosfera che si respira la mattina del 27 gennaio in aula.
Tra l’entusiasmo, la gioia di saltare due ore di lezione, la noia, gli schiamazzi e le battute, la nostra oratrice, Claudia Cardella ha iniziato il suo intervento spiegando il concetto di mafia.
Mafia. Ancora oggi a molta gente non è chiaro cosa significhi questa parola, mentre altri ne negano l’esistenza. Forse per poter fuggire dalla realtà che li circonda, forse perché lo ritengono il comportamento più conveniente o forse per paura.
Per mafia si intende criminalità organizzata che gestisce traffici illeciti (droga, prostituzione, racket etc..) da cui trarre numerosi profitti. Generalmente essa si tramanda di generazione in generazione e non muore, come invece accade nelle normali organizzazioni criminali.
In Italia esistono quattro fazioni di mafie che si sono sviluppate al Sud all’indomani dell’unità d’Italia: la Camorra in Campania, la Sacra Corona Unita in Puglia, l’ndrangheta in Calabria e Cosa Nostra in Sicilia.
Esse si sono ramificate anche al Nord, poiché molti imprenditori, facendosi prestare i soldi, hanno permesso alle mafie di estendersi su tutto lo stivale.
Durante il monologo Claudia pronuncia la parola “carciofo”.
Perché mai inserire il nome di un ortaggio in un discorso sulle mafie?
La giovane laureanda in Scienze politiche, corleonese d’origine, spiega che il termine non è altro che la traduzione in italiano dal dialetto siciliano del termine “cosca”. Essa è formata da un gruppo di persone con una forte gerarchizzazione interna in cui ognuno ha i suoi compiti.
Ecco la metafora:“Provate a pensare come è fatto un carciofo, ha un cuore all’interno protetto (il boss) e tutt’intorno è avvolto da tantissimi strati di foglioline che si chiudono e formano una specie di corazza che termina con quelle spinette che rappresentano gli affiliati”.
Claudia è riuscita a stimolare la curiosità della classe ed ha creato un filo conduttore tra tutte le domande. Ne riportiamo due.
Che aspetto può avere un mafioso?
I mafiosi si vestono griffati, possiedono motori e auto costosi, non hanno bisogno di chiedere nulla a nessuno e non hanno paura di nessuno.
Come mai i mafiosi, così riconoscibili, non vengono denunciati?
Un grave problema del Sud è di tipo culturale ed è legato all’omertà, un fenomeno per cui gli spettatori non parlano, non vedono e le organizzazioni criminali si nutrono di questo clima di indifferenza, accondiscendenza e paura. Comunque, per riprendere la metafora, solo gli affiliati sanno dove si trovano i boss, le foglie del carciofo ne proteggono il cuore. Purtroppo va detto che all’interno dello Stato, il quale dovrebbe farsi protagonista della prevenzione e della repressione, ci sono politici, uomini di potere, amministratori conniventi e complici delle mafie.
Sono altri “carciofi”, che spesso si nascondono ma talvolta esibiscono la loro prepotenza, perché sono sicuri di non essere denunciati.
di Fabio Scognamiglio
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